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世行PPP合同指南摘要之法律变更

作者: 发布于:2017-12-01 11:28:58 来源: PPP知乎

  世界银行《PPP合同条款指南》(Guidance on PPP Contractual Provisions 2017,下称“合同指南”),是世界银行对PPP合同的官方指引,2017年版指南对特定国家不同层级的PPP交易和不同法律制度下的PPP交易经验的表述方面进行了改进,并针对债券融资PPP合同和企业融资PPP合同增加专门章节。


  PPP这群人、PPP知乎和上海段和段律师事务所余文恭律师团队以拍摄系列视频的创新形式,联合推出世行合同解读视频,分章节对合同指南进行重点解读,将其与国内PPP合同条款进行对比,并落脚于对国内PPP项目的借鉴以及对我国一带一路PPP项目的借鉴意义。


  北京明树数据科技有限公司作为业内领先的PPP大数据服务提供商和综合研究平台,牵头多家律所和咨询公司参与了该合同指南的翻译,致力推进PPP国际先进经验在中国的学习和传播。


  视频解读


  高清视频原址请在腾讯视频搜索:世界银行《PPP合同条款指南》解读系列之法律变更


  分割线  箭头 动态


  法律变更条款——所有缔约方须依法行事,因此也须在履行其合同义务时考虑遵守适用法律所付出的成本、时间和产生的其它任何影响。法律变更条款并不是每个合同都有的,因为PPP项目合作周期长,签约对象比较特殊。财政部在合同指南中特别规定,法律变更指PPP合同签约之后新法的颁布和对旧法的修订。世行合同指南强调法律范围包括:行业准则;税法;国际公约,与我国PPP的法律范围有所不同。


  世行引入“合格日期”概念——法律变更的生效日期往前推移一段时间,一般设置投标报前的六周,以便允许定价在明确的基础上确定,值得我国PPP合同借鉴。


  财政部合同指南将法律变更分为:“可控、不可控”两种类型,可控的法律变更风险由政府承担,不可控的法律变更风险原则上认定为不可抗力(共担)。世行将法律变更的风险共担分为4种,歧视性、具体、一般的法律变更由政府方承担;任何其他的法律变更:如果社会资本能够管理或者吸收相应的成本,风险由社会资本承担。这种方式值得我们借鉴。


  世行PPP合同指南分别针对全部法律变更风险以及歧视性、具体、一般的法律变更给出了两种合同范本。


  (注:本指南中,缔约政府部门指政府部门/实施机构;私营合作伙伴通常指社会资本。)


  1


  There are a number of factors to take into account for any Contracting Authority negotiating change in law provisions:


  Understanding market practice;


  Defining what qualifies as "Change in Law";


  Different risk allocation approaches;


  Relief and Compensation


  缔约政府部门在协商法律变更条款时有一系列因素需考虑:理解市场的实际运行状况;界定何为“法律变更”;不同的风险分配方式;救济与补偿


  2


  Applicable Law - The Contracting Authority and its legal advisers will need to carefully consider the definition of "Applicable Law" and how it ties in with other definitions in which it is incorporated (in particular the definition of "Change in Law"). The definition will depend on the relevant country as the way laws are implemented varies across jurisdictions. The key principle is that it should be limited to obligations with which the Private Partner must legally comply.


  适用法律——缔约政府部门及其法律顾问需仔细考虑“适用法律”的定义,及其包含该概念的其他定义(尤其是“法律变更”的定义)间的联系。该定义也取决于相关国家以及法律在该国司法实践中的运用。核心原则是将定义限定在私营合作伙伴必须依法遵守的法律义务。


  3


  Qualifying Date - The Private Partner is expected to have conducted thorough due diligence of the legal framework in determining its pricing and ability to perform its obligations under the PPP Contract. Accordingly, change in law should only include changes which were not "in the public domain" during the period when the pricing was developed and then submitted. This date is key and will usually be no later than the bid submission date. In the absence of a bidding process, an appropriate date will similarly need to be identified (and may be the date final pricing is submitted or the date of contract signature). As pricing is not developed overnight, it is customary in some jurisdictions for this date to be set at six weeks prior to submission of pricing so as to permit pricing to be determined on a clear basis.


  基准日——私营伙伴通过对法律框架的全面尽职调查以决定其报价以及完成对PPP履约能力的评估。因此,法律变更仅包括价格确定并报价后并未“为公众所知晓”的变更。该日期很关键,故一般不得晚于投标提交日。在无投标流程时,也需要确定一个适当的日期(可以是提交最终定价的日期或签署合同的日期等)。由于定价不能在一夜之间很快完成,许多法域的惯例是将此日期设定在提交定价之前六周,以便在一个更加明确的基础之上确定价格。


  4


  Different risk allocation approaches 不同的风险分配方式 :


  There are several approaches to allocating change in law risk but the ability for a Contracting Authority to share change in law risk with the Private Partner will depend on the risk of legislative or regulatory volatility in the jurisdiction and sector concerned, as well as the maturity of the market. The extent to which any resulting increased costs can be passed on to third party users will also be relevant.


  分配法律变更风险有几种方式,但缔约政府部门与私营合作伙伴分担法律变更风险的能力取决于在该法域及相关行业中立法关或监管的稳定性以及市场的成熟度,同时将增加的成本转移到第三方相关使用者(用户)的程度也与此相关。


  Approach (a): All risk borne by the Contracting Authority - In some markets the Contracting Authority typically bears all the risk of change in law and provides full relief to the Private Partner. This may be the only way that private finance can be raised in its jurisdiction for the bankability reasons mentioned above.


  方式(a):由缔约政府部门承担所有的风险——在一些市场中,缔约政府部门承担所有的法律变更风险,并向私营合作伙伴提供完整的救济。因前述的可贷款融资性原因,这可能是在该法域内获得私营合作伙伴融资的唯一办法。


  Approach (b): Basic risk sharing by the Private Partner - One way in which change in law risk can be allocated between the Private Partner and the Contracting Authority is by setting a minimum cost threshold, generally on a yearly basis, below which the Private Partner will not be compensated.


  方式(b):由私营合作伙伴承担基本的风险——让私营合作伙伴和缔约政府部门分担法律变更风险的方法之一是设定一个最小的成本标准(一般按年计),低于该标准,私营合作伙伴将无法获偿。


  Approach (c): More developed risk sharing:


  Discriminatory Changes in Law - these are changes in law which are discriminatory because they apply to the PPP Project and not to similar projects, or to the Private Partner and not to other persons, or to PPP operators and not to other parties.


  Specific Changes in Law - these are changes in law specifically impacting the provision of services the same as or similar to the PPP Project services or the shareholders of businesses providing such services.


  Discriminatory and Specific Change in Law risk is allocated to the Contracting Authority to address the Private Partner's concern that laws may be passed that have the effect of singling out or private operators of infrastructure in a manner that has an adverse impact on expected equity return.


  General Changes in Law requiring capital expenditure in operating period -these are general changes in law (i.e. excluding Discriminatory Changes in Law and Specific Changes in Law) which require the Private Partner to incur capital expenditure after construction completion during the operating period. The risk of these changes is also allocated to the Contracting Authority.


  Any other Changes in Law - these are all other changes in law including those which trigger capital expenditure during the construction period (but excluding the categories above). The risk of these changes is allocated to the Private Partner throughout the duration of the PPP Contract on the basis that the Private Partner is able to manage and absorb any price implications. The ability to pass the risk of changes requiring capital expenditure in the construction phase will, however, depend on the length of the construction period and the predictability of the legal regime. A particularly long period and/or less stable regime may make this unbankable and a different risk allocation might be needed.


  方式(c):更成熟的风险分担方式:


  区别性法律变更——这些法律变更带有区别性,因为它们适用于PPP项目而不适用于类似的项目;适用于私营合作伙伴而不适用于其它人,或适用于PPP运营方而不适用于其它方。


  特定的法律变更——这些法律变更对PPP项目服务条款或与类似于PPP项目的服务或对提供服务的公司股东的造成影响。


  区别性和特定的法律变更风险由缔约政府部门承担,以消除私营合作伙伴的顾虑,他们担心法律可能会强制将区别对待,或者私营基础设施的运营方由此可能会担心(法律变更)会对其预期的平等回报带来不利影响。


  要求运营期资本支出的一般性法律变更——这些(变更)是一般性的法律变更(即不含区别性法律变更和特定的法律变更),将导致私营合作伙伴在项目竣工后的运营期间产生资本费用支出。该类法律变更的风险亦由缔约政府部门承担。


  其它法律变更——上述一般法律变更以外的法律变更,包括项目建设期导致基建建设费用支出的法律变更(处理上述已经提及的类别),其风险在整个PPP合同期间,都由私营合作伙伴承担,因为私营合作伙伴能够管理和吸收因此导致的任何价格变化。然而,私营合作伙伴是否具备转移建设期导致基建建设费用支出的法律变更风险的能力,取决于建设期的长度和法律制度的可预见性。工期太长和/或不够稳定的法律制度可能会导致无法获得贷款融资,进而可能需要采取其它风险分配方式。


  Approach (d): All risk borne by the Private Partner - This is highly unusual and likely to be achievable only in very established legally stable.


  方式(d):由私营合作伙伴承担所有风险——这种方式非常少见,且仅在非常成熟且法律稳定的市场中才可能实现。


  5


  Relief from breach - The Private Partner should be protected from breach of contract to the extent (a) its performance is prevented or delayed by a change in law it does not bear the risk of and (b) a variation in PPP Project scope is required in order to comply with a change in law (in which case the PPP Contract should include a mechanism for implementing such variation, for example by means of a Contracting Authority requested variation).


  违约救济——在下列情形下,私营合作伙伴不应当被认定为违反合同约定,(a)由于受到不由其承担的法律变更风险的影响,导致其无法履行义务或迟延履行义务,和(b)为了符合变更后的法律而被要求改变PPP项目范围(在这种情形下,PPP合同本身应当包含实施该等变更的机制,比如采取缔约政府部门要求变更的方式)。


  点击“原文”下载世界银行2017版《PPP合同条款指南》—法律变更完整版


  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  上海锦天成律师事务所刘飞团队在PPP知乎发布专栏连载世界银行《2017版PPP合同条款指南》学习笔记,与我们此次推出的内容形成良好的呼应和对照,特在本文下提供笔记链接,以供读者更好的了解和学习。




  今日观点
  清华大学王守清教授 来源:清华PPP研究中心
  国际经验基本上有这么几条,第一条项目的范围比较容易鉴定,流域为什么不好弄,因为范围不好鉴定,所有环境介质都得考虑,这是第一个。第二个原则环境效果要容易确定,容易测量计量。环境在这个方面是容易的,但是前面的范围不容易确定。发达国家PPP做得好的,公共项目真的用PPP的只是10%-15%(加拿大,公用基础设施多)。此外,PPP模式推广结合了城镇化的发展需求,在城乡结合部土壤修复和小流域治理的需求是非常普遍的,我过去努力推PPP,现在要给PPP泼点冷水了。

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